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In the White Paradise Pamukkale, impresses its visitors with its cottony view, after the thermal water surfaced it deposits the calcium carbonade its inside. In the begining, this form is like a soft gel. By and by it hardens and becomes “TRAVERTINE”. The healing thermal water which provides Pamukkale to settlement center thousands of years, vital for the travertines, too. Uneque travertines are Denizli’s window which opens to the World.


 

Travertines

The term travertine comes from Roman times, in reference to the great travertine sediments of Tivoli in Italy. The travertines are stone kind which result from complicated chemical reactions that have many causes, many facets and they are largely dependent upon the surroundings. The geological phenomena which compose Pamukkale Thermal Springs, affect a wide area. In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature change between 35 and 100 degrees. The thermal springs of Pamukkale form an integral part of the regions which are potential for tourism and have been popular since ancient times. The water, that emerges from the spring, is transported 320 m to the head of the travertines and deposits itself on a section 60 to 70 meters long covering an expanse of 240 to 300 meters. In little pools side and larger basins, the calcium carbonate which is deposited at first is a soft jelly but with time it hardens and becomes a travertine.

With the reason the thermal water's effort to deposit on the normal way, travertine emerges. When the calcium carbonade reaches to an excessive amount and the water comes to the land, the carbondioxide transpirers and the calcium carbonate deposits. The depositing goes on while the carbon dioxide in the water and the carbon dioxide in the weather balances.

This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature and the speed of flow duration. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide, by the time this water flows across the travertines, this figure falls to 145 mg/l. Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576.8 mg/l to 376.6 mg/l. From these results it is calculated that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water. This means that for a flow rate of 1 ı/s of water 43191 grams are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29.2 dm3. Given that the average flow of the water is 465.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13584 m2 a day, but in practice this areal coverage is difficult to attain. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to. 4.9 km2 it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 mm thickness.